Tartarus is the abyss of hell in Greek mythology, which brought suffering to the imprisoned Titans. Tartarus is also the name of a god, ancient and primordial, that predated both Titan and Olympus.
Although it has been mentioned with two different meanings in Greek mythology, it seems that the idea that Tartarus is hell is better known. Initially, people imagined Tartarus as a deep hole beneath the Earth, but then it was re-imagined as a kind of hell, where those who committed serious crimes while alive were punished in the world. there.
Tartarus in Hesiod’s Theogony
In Hesiod’s Theogony, Tartarus is one of the first entities to appear at the creation of the universe, and is the opposite of Gaia (Earth).
“First to the Deep Cave; and then the fertile-breasted Earth, the eternal seat of all immortals on the snow-covered Olympus; Tartara (plural of Tartarus) in the misty recesses of the valley. deep into the vast earth;
Like other primitive characters, Tartarus is seen as a pure entity rather than gods like Titan or Olympus, and is associated with the idea of place. Similarly, Gaia is not the god of the earth, but the earth itself. Tartarus is not the god of the abyss, but the abyss.
What differentiates the two figures is that Gaia is more involved in mythological events, especially in the mythology that explains Kronos’ takeover of power and his overthrow of Ouranos. In the process, Gaia, which was an element, is transformed into a more concrete image, making it easier for Hesiod’s readers to relate. Gaia plots to overthrow Ouranos, talks to her Titan children, and rejoices when Kronos executes her plan. Tartarus, on the other hand, is not portrayed this way in the myths.
Tartarus is where the gods keep those who threaten their rule. The most dangerous of these are probably the Titans. This took place after the great battle between Titan and the Olympians, Titan was defeated, then imprisoned in Tartarus. According to Hesiod, this place will be guarded by Kottos, Gyges and Briareos – loyal guards of Zeus.
New imagination of Tartarus
In later times, the Greeks thought that Tartarus was not only a place to keep the enemies of the Olympians, but also a place to punish those who had committed terrible crimes. As a territory punishing the wicked, Tartarus is the opposite version of Elysium, where the upright live.
A few of the well-known characters who suffered punishment in Tartarus were Tantalus (for scorning the gods), Sisyphus (for playing pranks on the gods), Ixion (for deliberately seducing the goddess Hera) and the Danaides (49 girls guilty of murdering their husbands). There are many different crimes that can lead people to captivity in Tartarus. In Virgil’s epic Aeneid, Aeneas’ journey across the underworld is described in great detail.