We all start life as babies. From infancy to adulthood, a lot changes.
Newborns have more bones than adults.
Babies are born with more than 300 bones, compared to adults with only 206. This difference near the number of 100 is because the bones of children are not as seamless into the spine as adults, with gaps containing cartilage that provide more flexibility and flexibility during development. As people grow older, the cartilages calcify and the bones become seamless; This process extends into adolescence for most people. By the age of 16, most of the cartilage has turned into bone.
Although they have more bone, children lack some of the bony parts that adults have such as knees, which they have cartilage in place.
Children have the ability to “transform”
Thanks to the undeveloped skull, children can “transform”! Thanks to this ability, the baby can come out of the womb without the need for a cesarean section. The brain triples in volume within the first 3 years of life. A flexible skull allows for maximum brain development during this period.
Some babies, when they come out of the womb first, have prosthetic legs, but that’s entirely because of their immature, flexible bones. This is extremely normal, and the bones will grow slowly.
Children are very good at multitasking
Children can drink water and breathe at the same time (don’t try, you can’t do that). Babies are breastfed for about 20-45 minutes continuously, and still can breathe normally. Babies have this superpower due to the position of the trachea at birth higher than the larynx, with a thin layer separating the tip of the trachea and the larynx. That’s why children can only breathe through their noses. They have difficulty breathing through their mouths.
Between 3 and 6 months of age, the trachea will gradually descend to a lower position, allowing speech to develop. As the larynx develops, we begin to lose the ability to eat/drink and breathe at the same time.
Children are natural swimmers
Children have an instinct to swim from a very early age. Under 6 months of age, most children automatically hold their breath underwater and exhibit the “diving” reflex – a series of unconditioned reflexes that help conserve oxygen. Heart rate slows, blood vessels constrict.
This “diving” reflex seems to go away on its own from 6 months of age on. But even if children retain this skill, they should not be allowed to swim unsupervised.
In addition, babies also have other reflex behaviors such as holding hands – they will grip their own hands when an object is placed in the palm of their hand. This is also something we have in common with primates.
Children ‘grow’ like weeds
Children grow up very quickly. Not only can their brains develop at a dizzying rate, children can gain weight twice as much in the first five months of life, and three times in a year. Before 6 months old, every month babies grow 2.5cm per month!
Don’t expect babies to start growing big from the moment they’re born. Losing weight of about 10% or less after giving birth is very normal. Babies will regain their weight in just 2 weeks.
When I was a child, food tasted very different
Humans can recognize sweet and sour tastes from birth and show a preference for the sweetness of breast milk. Some studies show that babies are not able to perceive bitter taste until 2-3 months old, salty taste from 3-4 months.
Although their taste buds are immature, children have more taste receptors than adults. Babies are even able to recognize tastes in amniotic fluid. As a result, the child may have a preference for the same taste as the mother.
Some children are born anorexic. It takes time for children to get used to certain flavors. It takes about 7 flavors to get used to, so it’s easy for children to eat. So don’t worry even if your child refuses to eat vegetables at first, he will probably like vegetables soon enough.
Children don’t need to drink water
Even giving water to babies is very dangerous in the first month after birth. Babies get enough water and nutrition from breast milk and formula. Breast milk and infant formula have a similar role to water electrolytes: homeostasis. Milk contains the right ratio of water and salt to support a healthy body. Therefore, giving water to children can cause imbalance.
Because the kidneys are not yet developed, babies are not able to filter excess water as effectively as adults. Excess water can cause blood thinning and electrolyte deficiencies. Babies’ stomachs are also small, about the size of marbles, and water will take up the space that should be for nutrition. Therefore, it is not advisable to give water to young children before 6 months of age or to dilute milk.
Children do not go outside, only at the beginning
Newborn baby poop, also known as meconium, is a waste product of digestion while in the womb. Meconium usually has a very mild odor. Some babies are born covered with meconium because they are stressed and have a “poop” while in the womb.
The foul smell of human feces is mainly caused by stomach bacteria and the waste of these bacteria during the decomposition of food. Babies in the womb do not have this layer of digestive microorganisms. Babies only start to have digestive microflora after birth and start suckling breast milk, so after a few days the baby’s stool will start to have a familiar characteristic smell.
Not only sucking milk, sometimes babies also make their own milk
Children are capable of lactation, and this is completely normal! This phenomenon occurs in about 5% of newborn babies, regardless of gender. ‘Baby milk’ can look very different from breast milk, which is because babies are exposed to large amounts of estrogen in utero and breast milk. This phenomenon will go away on its own, but if it persists beyond 2 months, parents should consult a doctor.
Children’s visual ability is very poor
Babies are born with very poor eyesight. During the first few months of life, a baby’s focal length is very short. They can only see their mother’s face while nursing and have trouble perceiving what’s further away.
The brain needs to learn how to control the muscles that help adjust the eye focus. Between the first 5 months of age and 1 year, children begin to learn to see more distant objects with higher definition.
Children initially respond very well to black and white or high contrast images, rather than brightly colored images. It is possible that the child can see color from birth, but does not have the ability to process visual information. As vision develops, babies begin to see red a few weeks after birth.